Znalazłem rozwiązanie na stronach Microsoftu. W moim przypadku chodziło o punkt 2
This is a blocking issue. The client computer is unable to connect to a component of the Windows Update site. Most likely this is due to misconfigured proxy/firewall settings,
incorrect DNS entries or some application running on the client computer that interacts with Web connections and is blocking the connection. Here are a few ways to try to resolve this issue:
Check your HOSTS file (it may also be called HOSTS.SAM) and make sure you don't have any static IP entries for the Windows Update web site listed in the file. If you are running Win98/ME, the HOSTS file will be in this folder:
If you are running WinNT/2K/XP, it will be in this folder:
You can use Notepad to open the HOSTS file. You may need to "tell" Windows to use Notepad to open the file.
Applications like web accelerators, TweakMasterDNS, etc. can add static IP entries for the Windows Update site into your HOSTS file and when this happens you will get the 0x80072F76 error message.
Check your firewall/proxy settings and also try disabling your firewall. This error is the result of your PC's inability to connect to a component of the Windows Update site. Disable all 3rd party applications (including anti-virus) before accessing the site.
You may be able to resolve this issue by adding the following Web sites to the trusted sites list in Internet Options:
https://v4.Windowsupdate.microsoft.com (Note: The https is correct)
To add these web sites to the list, follow these steps:
Open Internet Explorer.
Click "Tools," and then click "Internet Options."
Click the Trusted Sites icon.
Clear the check box "Require server verification (https:)for all sites in this zone."
Add all four sites listed above.
This issue may be resolved by adding the Windows Update sites to the exceptions list in the Internet Options Proxy Settings.
To access the Exceptions settings:
Open Internet Explorer
Click "Tools" and then click "Internet Options."
Click "Connections" and then click "LAN Settings."
Click "Advanced" and add windowsupdate.microsoft.com; v4.windowsupdate.microsoft.com, and download.windowsupdate.com to the exceptions list.If you run other proxy/firewall software, then add the sites to the exception list for those applications as well.